Carbon tax profile for Vermont (Kelly Wilkinson; previous version byGretchen Glaub)

% change 1990-2007
Fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in millions of metric tonnes[1]
Fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in millions of short tons[2]
Population, in thousands[3]
Per capita CO2 emissions, in short tons

Per capita emissions in Vermont in 2007 were almost half of the U.S. average, which was 21.0 short tons per capita.[4] Vermont has no coal fired power plants and not surprisingly, total energy consumption in Vermont is the lowest of any state in the nation.[5] Vermont relies mainly on nuclear power, hydroelectric power and biomass for its energy. A single nuclear reactor provides Vermont with 73% of its power. [6]

A carbon tax of $30 per short ton of CO2 (about $0.30 per gallon of gasoline, or about $0.03 per kWh of coal-fired power) would have raised about $311 million in 2009 (about $501 per person), assuming a 10% reduction in emissions. This would be a 7% increase in revenue for the state. In 2009, the total states revenue was $4.187 billion. 572 million dollars of Vermont State revenues come from income taxes and $317 million of Vermont State revenues comes from the 6% sales taxes. [7]

Vermont, known as the Green Mountain State, is certainly "green." Vermont has the lowest total energy consumption and fossil fuel emission levels than any other state in the nation. [8] Vermont is ranked 5th in the nation for doing the most to implement energy efficiency according to the 2009 State Energy Efficiency Scorecard created by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. [9] Vermont joined the national alliance 25x '25 in March 2008, setting the goal to attain 25% of the state's energy consumption though renewable energy resources. [10] A report done in 2007 estimated that implementation of new DSM (Demand Side Management) could lower emissions associated with a low-emissions scenario by about 45% by 2020 and 49% by 2030. Implementation of new DSM programs starting in 2006 could lower emissions associated with a high-emissions scenario by about 18% by 2020 and23% by 2030. [11] Projections indicate the greatest renewable energy resources are biomass (wood) and crops (biodiesel and ethanol sources); other sources are windpower, solar, agricultural waste digestion, geothermal and hydropower. [12]
carbon emissions

  1. ^ EPA "State CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion" linked from
  2. ^ 1 metric tonne equals 1.1023 short tons.
  3. ^ 2007 population from the U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 population from U.S. Census Bureau,
  4. ^ U.S. population of 301.6 million in 2007 from U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. carbon emissions of 5.757 billion tonnes (or 6.346 billion short tons) of CO2 from EPA's 2010 U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report.
  5. ^ EIA Vermont Energy Profile. Linked from
  6. ^ Department of Energy State Profile for Vermont. Linked from
  7. ^ Vermont State tax revenue figures come from the Office of the Vermont State Auditor,, FY 2005 tax revenue figures are from the Comprehensive Annual Financial Reprt for FY 2009
  8. ^ Department of Energy, In Your State, Vermont. Linked from
  9. ^ American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Press Release, 10/21/09: "ACEEE: Recession not Dimming States' Growing Focus on Energy Efficiency as "First Fuel." Linked from
  10. ^ Vermont Governor's Office, Press Release, 3/6/08: "Governor Releases Report on Meeting Renewable Energy Goal." Linked from http// .
  11. ^ "Final Vermont Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Reference Case Projections, 1990-2030". Linked from
  12. ^ Vermont Department of Public Service, Vermont 25x '25 Initiative: Preliminary Findings and Goals. Linked from http//